Many people are aware of the term Dyslexia and associate it with reading difficulties. The British Dyslexia Association describes Dyslexia as ‘a learning difference which primarily affects reading and writing skills’.
While difficulties in reading and writing are present in children with Dyslexia, they are by no means the only problems these people can experience. While the phonological components of literacy are often a key area for remediation of Dyslexia many people experience difficulties with visual perception and processing which is also an important area to be addressed.
The British Dyslexia Association notes that ‘Dyslexia is actually about information processing’ and that people with Dyslexia may have ‘difficulty processing and remembering information they see and hear, which can affect learning and the acquisition of literacy skills’.
Dyslexia can also impact on other areas such as social-emotional development and organisational skills.
It is also important to recognise that there are positive aspects to thinking differently and people with Dyslexia can how strengths in areas such as reasoning and in visual and creative fields (British Dyslexia Association).
Based on the definition by The International Dyslexia Association, Dyslexia is described as:
It is important to note that Dyslexia is NOT caused by:
The International Dyslexia Association describes Dysgraphia as ‘a condition of impaired letter writing by hand’ and indicate that it can impact handwriting, spelling or both.
Dysgraphia can be characterised by:
Dysgraphia can be linked to difficulties with short term memory, sequencing, fine motor skills, and visual perception (including discrimination, memory, and spatial concepts).
People with Dysgraphia often describe difficulties getting their ideas on paper and can find it easier to communicate their ideas verbally.
The Department of Education UK (2001) described Dyscalculia as “a condition that affects the ability to acquire mathematical skills”. Meta-analysis conducted by Karagianakkis, Baccaglini-Frank, and Papadatos (2014) indicated that Mathematical Learning Difficulties generally describes a wide variety of deficits in math skills, relating to arithmetic and mathematical problem solving. Their article proposes four subtypes involved in mathematical difficulties:
Anna Wilson notes that delays in counting, delays in using counting for addition, and difficulties in memorising arithmetic facts have been established by research as symptoms of Dyscalculia. See http://www.aboutdyscalculia.org/symptoms.html for more information. Judy Hornigold describes these difficulties as being characteristic of Dyscalculia:
For more information see: judyhornigold.co.uk
Developmental Dyspraxia or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects a person’s ability to plan and complete fine and/or gross motor movement.
For each skill or task we do there is a three step process that happens in our brain. You have to first have an idea or understand what you need to achieve, then to think of or have a pre-prepared plan, and then lastly execute this plan. For a person with dyspraxia there may be challenges at any or all points along this process.
Because of this, dyspraxia presents differently in different people depending on where in this process is affected and to what degree. A child with dyspraxia can have challenges with any of the following:
A child with dyspraxia can appear clumsy, bump into objects, drop things, and fall over more often than expected. They can also appear to have behavioural difficulties. This can stem from their frustration with their symptoms. Developmental dyspraxia can be associated with other diagnoses such other specific learning difficulties, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
An occupational therapy assessment is required to explore a possible diagnosis of Dyspraxia.